Trade activity


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Viking archeological site discovered in Newfoundland. It is classed as a Historical Site and as a United Nations World Heritage Site.


Among the Algonquians, a group of families.

Clan mother

Among the Iroquoians, a woman who is head of her clan. Usually, this is the oldest woman in the family.


Among the Iroquoians, a group made up of individuals with the same mythic ancestor. Each group is identified with a symbolic animal.

First Nations

Term used on our site to designate the peoples inhabiting North America before the arrival of Europeans.


A type of stone used to make tools such as arrowheads, scrapers and knives.


The head of the colony and representative of the king.


Plant growing. It is often confused with the word agriculture which includes raising livestock.


A person or a group that acts as a mediator or agent between two other individuals or groups.

Jerusalem artichoke

A plant that resembles a potato.

Linguistic family

A group of peoples who speak similar languages.

Native copper

Copper that occurs as a natural mineral.


An individual who has a talent for public speaking and who holds the interest of those listening.


To carry a canoe and its contents overland between two waterways. The word portage referred to the paths along which the canoes were transported when the waterway became too difficult to navigate.


Rules to follow during an event.


People who travel throughout a fixed territory to exploit the resources according to the season.


People who move from one location to another within their territory when local resources have been exhausted.

Ship's biscuits

Standard fare for sailors on long voyages, these were very hard biscuits (also known as hardtack) that could be kept for a long time but were not very appetizing.

Three Sisters

Three plants grown together by the Iroquoians: corn, squash and beans. These plants were called sisters because they help each other to grow.

Trading post

Establishment built by Europeans where the First Nations came to trade.


A group originating in Scandinavia. They were known for their seafaring expeditions on their longboats called drakkars.


A term used to describe belts made with beads crafted from shells. The motifs represented the terms of the alliance.